User Rating: 0 / 5

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive
 

The Final Revelation

 

What follows is the forward to the print edition, available here.


 

English Interpretation of the Meaning of

Qur’an

The Final Revelation

           

 

www.finalrevelation.net

Houston, Texas

Interpretation of Meaning by: Abdul Hye, PhD

 

1st Print: July / 2006

2nd Print: December / 2006

3rd Print: December / 2007

4th Print: September / 2011

Printed in the United States of America

__________________________________________________

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2006906270

ISBN 9781477468098

__________________________________________________

© Copyright: 2006 Finalrevelation.net, Houston, Texas.

All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopying and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. No part of this book may be translated into any other language without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Qur’an

Introduction

 

      The Qur’an is the final revelation for the Guidance of mankind from the same Almighty God who sent Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. This Qur’an is translated / interpreted word-for-word from Arabic to English in a simple way so that it can be understood easily by everyone. We used Allah (One and only like Him instead of God) throughout. Any word needed to clarify a meaning is added in parenthesis. All 25 names of the prophets mentioned in the Qur’an are listed as English names so the reader can find the same name mentioned in previously revealed scriptures. A Prophet tree is provided at the beginning with a list of places, nations, landmarks, etc. for each prophet as references. A map is provided to show the location of each of these places and nations. A brief list of the life events of Prophet Muhammad is given to understand the goals and objectives of his mission. Since he has been sent as the final Messenger for the entire universe until the Last Day of this world, all of his efforts focused on reaching out to all nations through delegations and letters towards peace for all mankind. He personally traveled many expeditions and wrote letters to different kings and rulers of different nations. Besides the Qur’an, all of his sayings with events (Hadith) narrated by his companions during his lifetime and afterwards were preserved and recorded in systematic order so a reader can find the detailed reference / reason in Hadith for any particular revelation in the Qur’an which was revealed during 23 years. Two copies of the originally compiled Qur’an are still preserved in Tashkent, Uzbekistan and Istanbul, Turkey. Today’s Arabic Qur’an is the same as the one originally compiled.

      All this information will help the reader understand the continuation of the religion of Abraham through Moses, Jesus and finally through Muhammad, who has been sent with this Qur’an to deliver the final version of the religion of Allah to mankind, Islam.

Abdul Hye, PhD

finalrevelation.net

September 30, 2011

Table of Contents  (page number refer to the printed edition only)

 

#

Chapter Name

Chapter Name Meaning

# Verses

Revealed @

Page #

1

Al-Fatihah

The Opening

7

Makkah

1

2

Al-Baqarah

The Cow

286

Madinah

1

3

Al-‘Imran

The family of Imran

200

Madinah

22

4

An-Nisa’

The Woman

176

Madinah

35

5

Al-Ma’idah

The Table Spread

120

Madinah

48

6

Al-An’am

The Cattle 

165

Makkah

57

7

Al-A’raf

The Heights

206

Makkah

68

8

Al-Anfal

The Spoils of War

75

Madinah

81

9

At-Taubah

The Repentance 

129

Madinah

85

10

Yunus

 Jonah 

109

Makkah

95

11

Hud

Hud 

123

Makkah

102

12

Yusuf

 Joseph

111

Madinah

109

13

Ar-Ra’d

The Thunder

43

Madinah

116

14

Ibrahim

Abraham

52

Makkah

119

15

Al-Hijr

The Rock Tract

99

Makkah

122

16

An-Nahl

The Bee

128

Makkah

125

17

Al-Isra’

The Night Journey

111

Makkah

132

18

Al-Kahf

The Cave 

110

Makkah

139

19

Maryam

Mary

98

Makkah

145

20

Ta-Ha

Ta-Ha

135

Makkah

149

21

Al-Anbiya’

The Prophets

112

Makkah

154

22

Al-Hajj

The Pilgrimage

78

Madinah

160

23

Al-Muminun

The Believers 

118

Makkah

165

24

An-Nur

The Light

64

Madinah

169

25

Al-Furqan

The Criterion

77

Makkah

174

26

Ash-Shuara’

The Poets

227

Makkah

177

27

An-Naml

The Ant

93

Makkah

183

28

Al-Qasas

The Narration

88

Makkah

188

29

Al-Ankabut

The Spider 

69

Makkah

193

30

Ar-Rum

The Romans 

60

Makkah

197

31

Luqman

Luqman

34

Makkah

200

32

As-Sajdah

The Prostration 

30

Makkah

202

33

Al-Ahzab

The Confederates

73

Madinah

204

34

Saba’

Sheba

54

Makkah

209

35

Fatir

The Originator of Creation

45

Makkah

212

36

Ya-Seen

Ya-Seen

83

Makkah

215

37

As-Saffat

Those who set the Ranks 

182

Makkah

218

38

Sad

Sad 

88

Makkah

223

39

Az-Zumar

The Groups 

75

Makkah

226

40

Ghafir

The Forgiver

85

Makkah

231

41

Fussilat

The Detailed Explanation 

54

Makkah

235

42

Ash-Shura

The Consultation

53

Makkah

238

43

Az-Zukhruf

The Gold Adornments

89

Makkah

242

44

Ad-Dukhan

The Smoke

59

Makkah

246

45

Al-Jathiyah

The Kneeling

37

Makkah

247

46

Al-Ahqaf

The Curved Sand-Hills 

35

Makkah

249

47

Muhammad

Muhammad

38

Madinah

252

48

Al-Fath

The Victory

29

Madinah

254

49

Al-Hujurat

The Private Apartments

18

Madinah

256

50

Qaf

Qaf 

45

Makkah

258

51

Adh-Dhariyat

The Winds that Scatter

60

Makkah

259

52

At-Tur

The Mount Tur

49

Makkah

261

53

An-Najm

The Star 

62

Makkah

263

54

Al-Qamar

The Moon 

55

Makkah

265

55

Ar-Rahman

The Gracious

78

Madinah

267

56

Al-Waqi’ah

The Event

96

Makkah

268

57

Al-Hadid

The Iron 

29

Madinah

271

58

Al-Mujadilah

The Woman who Disputes

22

Madinah

273

59

Al-Hashr

The Gathering

24

Madinah

275

60

Al-Mumtahanah

The Woman to be Examined

13

Madinah

276

61

As-Saff

The Rank

14

Madinah

278

62

Al-Jumu’ah

The Congregation

11

Madinah

279

63

Al-Munafiqun

The Hypocrites

11

Madinah

279

64

At-Taghabun

The Mutual Loss and Gain

18

Madinah

280

65

At-Talaq

The Divorce

12

Madinah

281

66

At-Tahrim

The Prohibition

12

Madinah

283

67

Al-Mulk

The Sovereignty 

30

Makkah

284

68

Al-Qalam

The Pen

52

Makkah

285

69

Al-Haqqah

The Inevitable

52

Makkah

287

70

Al-Ma’arij

The Ways of Ascent

44

Makkah

288

71

Nuh

Noah

28

Makkah

289

72

Al-Jinn

The Jinn 

28

Makkah

290

73

Al-Muzzammil

The one wrapped in Garments 

20

Makkah

291

74

Al-Muddaththir

The one Enveloped

56

Makkah

292

75

Al-Qiyamah

The Resurrection

40

Makkah

294

76

Ad-Dahr

The Time

31

Madinah

295

77

Al-Mursalat

Those sent forth

50

Makkah

296

78

An-Naba’

The Great News

40

Makkah

297

79

An-Nazi’at

Those who Pull Out

46

Makkah

298

80

‘Abasa

He Frowned 

42

Makkah

299

81

At-Takwir

The Overthroughing

29

Makkah

300

82

Al-Infitar

The Cleaving

19

Makkah

301

83

Al-Mutaffifin

Those who deal in Fraud

36

Makkah

301

84

Al-Inshiqaq

The Splitting Asunder

25

Makkah

302

85

Al-Buruj

The Big Stars 'Buruj'

22

Makkah

303

86

At-Tariq

The Night-Comer

17

Makkah

303

87

Al-A’la

The High 

19

Makkah

304

88

Al-Ghashiyah

The Overwhelming

26

Makkah

304

89

Al-Fajr

The Dawn 

30

Makkah

305

90

Al-Balad

The City 

20

Makkah

306

91

Ash-Shams

The Sun

15

Makkah

306

92

Al-Lail

The Night

21

Makkah

306

93

Ad-Duha

The Forenoon

11

Makkah

307

94

Ash-Sharh

The Opening Forth

8

Makkah

307

95

At-Tin

The Fig

8

Makkah

307

96

Al-‘Alaq

The Clot 

19

Makkah

308

97

Al-Qadr

The Night of Decree

5

Makkah

308

98

Al-Bayyinah

The Clear Evidence

8

Madinah

308

99

Az-Zalzalah

The Earthquake

8

Madinah

309

100

Al-‘Adiyat

Those that Run

11

Makkah

309

101

Al-Qari’ah

The Striking Hour

11

Makkah

309

102

At-Takathur

The Piling Up

8

Makkah

310

103

Al-‘Asr

The Time

3

Makkah

310

104

Al-Humazah

The Slanderer

9

Makkah

310

105

Al-Fil

The Elephant

5

Makkah

310

106

Quraish

Quraish

4

Makkah

310

107

Al-Ma’un

The Small Kindness

7

Makkah

310

108

Al-Kauther

A River in Paradise

3

Makkah

311

109

Al-Kafirun

The Disbelievers

6

Makkah

311

110

An-Nasr

The Help          

3

Madinah

311

111

Al-Masad

The Palm Fiber

5

Makkah

311

112

Al-Ikhlas

The Purity

4

Makkah

311

113

Al-Falaq

The Daybreak 

5

Makkah

311

114

An-Nas

The Mankind

6

Makkah

312

 

Total

 

6,236

   

References …………………………………………………………………….   312


 PropheticLineage


 

#

Prophet

Places, Nations, Landmarks

Map Locations

1

Adam

Makka, Jeddah, India, Sri Lanka, Syria

1, 3, 75, 76, 74

2

Enoch(Idris)

Babylon, Hebron, Manf

64, 35, 30

3

Noah (Nuh)

People of Noah  (Kufah), Mt. Judi

65, 72

4

Hud

Al-Ahqaf, People of ‘Ad

19, 21

5

Salih

Hadramawt, Madain Saleh, People of Thamud

24, 23, 22

6

Abraham

(Ibrahim)

Ur, Babylon, Harran, Aleppo, Jerusalem, Hebron, Makkah, Al-Gizah

66, 64, 52, 57, 33, 35, 1, 31

7

Isaac (Ishaq)

Ur, Babylon, Urfa, Jerusalem, Hebron

66, 64, 67, 33, 35

8

Ishmael

(Ismail)

Makkah, Mina, Muzdalefa, Arafat

1, 4, 5, 6

9

Lot (Lut)

Sodom & Gomorrah, Dead Sea, Sughar

54, 39, 55

10

Jacob

(Yaqub)

Hebron, Jerusalem, Harran, Faddan, Manf, Heliopolis

35, 33, 52, 41, 30, 29

11

Joseph

(Yusuf)

Jerusalem, Hebron, San Al-Hajar

33, 35, 32

12

Shuaib

(Shu’aib)

Midian, Al-Aikah (Tabuk)

18, 16

13

Moses

(Musa)

Manf, Midian, Al-Aqabah, Mt. Tur, Heliopolis, Red Sea, Sinai, Jordan River, Mt. Nibu

30, 18, 60, 17, 29, 47, 73, 51, 62

14

Aaron(Harun)

Sinai, Mt. Haur

73, 61

15

Elias (Ilyus)

Balabak, Jal'ad, B'ir Sheva, Sinai

45, 53, 42, 73

16

Elisha

(Al-Yasa)

Balabak, Jal'ad, B'ir Sheva, Sinai

45, 53, 42, 73

17

David

(Dawud)

Ashdod, Bait Dajan, Ramlah, Abu Ghush, Jerusalem

48, 44, 37, 59, 33

18

Solomon

(Solaiman)

Jerusalem, Ashdod, Asqalan (Valley of Ants), Marib (Yemen), Queen Bilqis

33, 48, 49, 26, 27

19

Job (Ayub)

Bathaniyyah, Damascus, Adoum

46, 38, 58

20

Isaiah

(Dhul-Kifl)

Mt. Qasiyun (Damascus)

56

21

Jonah (Yunus)

Jaffa, Aleppo, Nasibain, Minawa (Mosul)

50, 57, 63, 68

22

Zachariah

(Zakariyya)

Jerusalem, Aleppo

33, 57

23

John(Yahya)

Jerusalem, Damascus

33, 38

24

Jesus (’Isa)

Bethlehem, Nazareth, Gaza, Farma, Heliopolis, Jordan River, Jerusalem

34, 36, 40, 43, 29, 51, 33

25

Muhammad

Makkah, Syria, Taif, Jerusalem, Al-Aqabah, Madinah, Badr, Uhud, Hudaibiyah, Khaibar, Hunayun, Tabuk, Mina, Muzdalefa, Arafat

1, 74, 11, 33, 60, 2, 9, 8, 10, 13, 12, 15, 4, 5, 6

PropheticMap

 

Place

Location

 

Place

Location

Makkah

1

 

Hebron

35

Kabah

M1

 

Nazareth

36

Station of Abraham

M2

 

Ramlah

37

ZamZam

M3

 

Damascus

38

Safa

M4

 

Dead Sea

39

Marwa

M5

 

Gaza

40

Cave Hira

M6

 

Faddan

41

Madinah

2

 

B'ir Sheva

42

Jeddah

3

 

Farma

43

Mina

4

 

Bait Dajan

44

Muzdalefa

5

 

Balabak

45

Arafat

6

 

Bathaniyyah

46

Mt. Thawr

7

 

Red Sea

47

Uhud

8

 

Ashdod

48

Badr

9

 

Asqalan (Valley of Ants)

49

Hudaibiyah

10

 

Jaffa

50

Taif

11

 

Jordan River

51

Hunayan

12

 

Harran

52

Khaibar

13

 

Jal'ad

53

Mutah

14

 

Sodom and Gomorrah

54

Tabuk

15

 

Sughar

55

Al-Aikah (Tabuk)

16

 

Mt. Qasiyun (Damascus)

56

Mt. Tur

17

 

Aleppo

57

Midian

18

 

Adoum

58

Al-Ahqaf

19

 

Abu Ghush

59

Najran

20

 

Al-Aqabah

60

People of Ad

21

 

Mt. Haur

61

People of Thamud

22

 

Mt. Nibu

62

Madain Saleh

23

 

Nasibain

63

Hadramawt

24

 

Babylon

64

Sana

25

 

People of Noah (Kufah)

65

Marib (Yemen)

26

 

Ur

66

Queen Bilqis

27

 

Urfa

67

Cairo

28

 

Minawa (Mosul)

68

Heliopolis

29

 

Antakiya

69

Manf (Egypt)

30

 

Istanbul

70

Al-Gizah

31

 

Tashkent

71

San Al-Hajar

32

 

Mt. Judi

72

Jerusalem

33

 

Sinai

73

Al-Aqsa Masjid

J1

 

Syria

74

Dome of the Rock

J2

 

India

75

Bethlehem

34

 

Sri Lanka

76

Life of Prophet Muhammad

 
 

Year

Event *

Age

 

570

Birth of Prophet Muhammad at Makkah (March / April). His father Abdullah died several months before he was born. He was raised by Halimah as wet-mother according to Makkah's tradition.

0

 

576

Death of Aminah (Prophet's mother). Muhammad was taken care by his grandfather Abd Al-Muttalib.

6

 

578

Death of Abd Al-Muttalib. Then Muhammad grew up under the protective care of his uncle Abu Talib.

8

 

582

Journey to Syria with uncle Abu Talib.

12

 

582-94

Worked as a shepherd for his uncle and later as a merchant. He lived a simple life. He was compassionate to the poor, widow, and orphans. He volunteered in many community activities. People of Makkah named him 'Al-Siddiq (the Truthful)' and 'Al-Ameen (the Trustworthy)' due to his honesty and good character. Acted as a business agent for Khadijah, a business woman of Makkah. Muhammad carried goods to the north and returned with a profit.

12-24

 

595

Impressed by Muhammad's honesty and character, Khadijah (who was a widow) proposed for marriage and eventually they got married. He was 25, she was 40.

25

 

609

Kabah was rebuilt by the people of Quraish. Muhammad helped to resolve disputes between the tribes.

39

 

610

First revelation came (August) to Muhammad at Cave Hira with a message (verses 96:1-5) from Allah by the Angel Gabriel.

40

 

610-13

Received several verses during this period and later they were compiled to become part of the Qur'an. He was belittled, ridiculed, then persecuted and physically attacked by the people of Makkah for his message of 'Oneness' of Allah, departing from the traditional tribal ways, including idol worshipping at the Kabah.

40-43

 

615

Muslims emigrated to Abyssinia to avoid sufferings / persecution from the people of Makkah. The king Negus offered asylum.

45

 

617-20

Embargo and boycott of Prophet's family by the people of Quraish.

47-50

 

620

Death of Abu Talib, Prophet's uncle. Death of Khadijah, Prophet's wife. The Quraish tried to assassinate him. Journey to Taif. Talked with the community leaders and people to convey his message. They rejected and stoned him to injury.

50

 

621

Ascension of Prophet Muhammad on the night of Meraj with angel Gabriel. The journey took him from Makkah to Jerusalem and then through the 7 heavens. Allah showed him all the activities, features of heaven and hell. He was then returned to Makkah with full knowledge, so he was able to describe everything. First Pledge of Al-Aqabah (between the prophet and 12 people from Madinah). They swore allegiance to him.

51

 

622

Second Pledge of Al-Aqabah (between the prophet and 75 people from Madinah). They swore to defend him. Emigration to Madinah (July). Established Quba Masjid as the first Masjid of Islam. Treaty with Jews and non-Muslims in Madinah with equal rights of citizenship and full religious liberty. Expedition of Hamza (December).

52

 

623

Expedition of Ubaidah (February); Al-Kharrar Expedition (March); Marriage to Aisha (April); Al-Abwa' Expedition (June); Buwat Expedition (July); Safawan Expedition (First Badr) (July); Ushairah  Expedition (October).

53

 

624

Change of Qiblah from Jerusalem to Makkah (January) when he received the commandment of Allah while he was praying at the Masjid known as the Masjid Al-Qiblatain. Batn Nakhlah Expedition (January); Badr Expedition (March). Salim bin Umair Expedition (April); Banu Qainuqa' Expedition (April); Marriage of Prophet's daughter Fatimah to Ali (June); Sawiq Expedition (June); Bani Sulaim (Al-Kudr) Expedition (July); An-Nadir Expedition (September); Dhi Amar Expedition (September); Buhran Expedition (November); Al-Qaradah Expedition (December)

54

 

625

Uhud Expedition (March); Hamra' Al-Asad Expedition (April)

55

 

626

Abu Salamah Expedition (July); Abdullah bin Unais Expedition (July); Dhatur-Riqa' Expedition (July); Al-Mundhir bin Amr (August); Raji Expedition (August); Daumatul-Jandal Expedition (August); Banu An-Nadir Expedition (September).

56

 

627

Banu Mustaliq Expedition (January); Ahzab Expedition (Trench around Madinah to defend the city) (February - March); Banu Quraizah Expedition (April); Second Badr Expedition (May); Al-Qurata Expedition (June); Banu Lihyan Expedition (August); Dhu Qarad Expedition (August); Ghamr Expedition (August); Dhul-Qassah Expedition (September); Dhul Qassah (Abu Ubaidah) Expedition (September); Zaid bin Harith 5 Expeditions (August / 627 - February / 628).

57

 

628

Daumatul-Jandal (Abdul Rahman bin Awf) Expedition (January); Fadak Expedition (January); Khaibar: (Abdullah bin Atik) Expedition (February), (Abdullah bin Rawaha) Expedition (March); 'Urainah Expedition (March); Ad-Damri Expedition; Treaty of Hudaibiyah between the Quraish of Makkah and Muslims (April). The Prophet Muhammad and Muslims returned to Madinah without Umrah as a part of the treaty with a provision to return to Makkah next year for Umrah. Makkans breached the treaty a year later. Invitation letters to Kings and world leaders (April - May) of Abyssinia, Bahrain, Persia, Jerusalem (Roman King), Alexandria, Oman, Yamamah, Damascus. See attached map later. Khaibar Expedition (May - June).

58

 

629

Turabah (Umar bin Khattab) Expedition (January); Najd Expedition (Abu Bakr) (January); Fadak Expedition (Bashir bin Sa'd) (January); Mayf'ah Expedition (January); Yamn and Jabar Expedition (January). Performance of missed Umrah (Umratul-Qada') (April). Banu Sulaim Expedition (May); Kadid and Fadak Expedition (July); Al-Asadi Expedition (August); Dhat Atla Expedition (August); Mutah Expedition (October); Dhatus-Salasil Expedition (November); Al-Khabt Expedition (December)

59

 

630

Abu Qatadah Expedition (January); Victory of Makkah (January); The Prophet entered Makkah with 10,000 Muslims without any bloodshed. The Makkans joined the Muslims after they saw no revenge or retaliation rather he announced general amnesty to all the enemies and treated the citizens of the city with generosity. Nakhlah (Khalid bin Al-Walid) Expedition (January); Suwa-Banu Hudhail (Amr bin Al-'Aas) Expedition (January); Al-Mushallal (Sa'd bin Zaid) Expedition (January); Banu Jadhimah (Khalid bin Al-Walid) Expedition (February). Hunain Expedition (February); At-Taif Expedition (February). Birth of Ibrahim (Prophet's son) (March); Banu Tamim Expedition (May); Tabalah Expedition (June); Dahhak Al-Kilabi Expedition (July); Jeddah Expedition (August); Ali bin Abi Talib (August); Al-Asadi Expedition (August). Death of Negus, King of Abyssinia (October). Tabuk Expedition (October - December).

60

 

631

Death of Ibrahim (Prophet's son) (January). Hajj Pilgrimage led by Abu Bakr (March). Najran Expedition by Khalid (July).

61

 

632

Yemen Expedition by Ali (January); Last Revelation (February - March). Farewell Pilgrimage to Makkah and thousands of Muslims joined (February - March). Last Sermon at Arafat (March); Usamah Expedition (June).

62

 

632

Death of Prophet Muhammad (June). He was buried in the Masjid in Madinah. During the last 10 years of his life, he

Ø destroyed idolatry in Arabia;

Ø raised the status of women to legal equality with men;

Ø stopped drunkenness and immorality in the society;

Ø made people live with faith, sincerity and honesty; transformed the nation from the ignorance of darkness into fully knowledgeable societies.

Ø His mission transformed a society from all forms of injustice into universal human brotherhood as servants of Allah.

Within 100 years, Islam and his way of life had spread from the remote corners of Arabia to as far east as Indo-China and as far west as Morocco, France, and Spain. He is the LAST messenger for the entire world from the SAME Allah of Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. The Qur'an is the FINAL REVELATION.

62+

         

  * Prophet Muhammad participated in expeditions in Bold.

ProphetLettersMap


The Last Sermon of the Prophet Muhammad

(This Sermon was delivered at Arafat in March, 632 CE)

After praising and thanking Allah, he said:

        O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

        O People, just as you regard this month, this day, and this city as sacred; so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest); therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived. Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabiah ibn al Harith.

        O People, the unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to forbid that which Allah has made permissible. With Allah, the months are 12 in number. 4 of them are holy, 3 of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Sha’ban. Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

        O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then they have the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

        O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford it. You know that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. You are all equal. Nobody has superiority over another except by piety and good action. Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not astray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

        O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand my words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur’an and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.

        All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness O Allah that I have conveyed Your message to Your people.


The History of Compilation of the Qur'an**

During the life of the Prophet Muhammad (570 - 632 CE)

  • The Prophet used to recite the Qur'an before angel Gabriel once every Ramadan, and he recited it twice (in the same order as we have today) in the last Ramadan before his death.
  • Each verse received was recited by the Prophet, and its location relative to other verses and chapters was identified by him.
  • The verses were written by scribes, selected by the Prophet, on any suitable object - the leaves of trees, pieces of wood, parchment or leather, flat stones, and shoulder blades. Scribes included Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Mu'awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, Ubey Ibn Ka'ab, and Zayed Ibn Thabit. Some of the companions wrote the Qur'an for their own use. Several hundred companions memorized the Qur'an by heart.

During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr (632 - 634 CE)

  • Umar Ibn Al-Khattab urged Abu Bakr to preserve and compile the Qur'an. This was prompted after the battle of Yamamah, where heavy casualties were suffered among those who memorized the Qur'an.
  • Abu Bakr entrusted Zayed with the task of collecting the Qur'an. Zayed had been present during the last recitation of the Qur'an by the Prophet to Angel Gabriel.
  • Zayed, with the help of the companions who memorized and wrote verses of the Qur'an, accomplished the task and handed Abu Bakr the first authenticated copy of the Qur'an. The copy was kept in the residence of Hafsah, daughter of Umar and wife of the Prophet.

During the Caliphate of Uthman (644 - 656 CE)

  • Uthman ordered Zayed Ibn Thabit, Abdullah Ibn Al Zubayr, Saeed Ibn Al-Aas, and Abdur-Rahman Ibn Harith to make perfect copies of the authenticated copy kept with Hafsa due to the rapid expansion of the Islamic state and concern about differences in recitation.
  • Copies were sent to various places in the Muslim world. The original copy was returned to Hafsa, and a copy was kept in Madinah.

Three stages of dotting and diacritization

  • Dots were put as syntactical marks by Abu Al-Aswad Al Doaly, during the time of Mu'awiya Ibn Abi Sufian (661-680 CE).
  • The letters were marked with different dotting by Nasr Ibn Asem and Hayy ibn Ya'mor, during the time of Abd Al-Malek Ibn Marawan (685-705 CE).
  • A complete system of diacritical marks (damma, fataha, kasra) was invented by Al Khaleel Ibn Ahmad Al Faraheedy (d. 786 CE).
 
   

**University of Southern California - MSA

Original copies of the Qur’an still exist: (1) Tashkent, Uzbekistan, (2) Istanbul, Turkey.

4 Caliphs after the Prophet Muhammad

Name

Period

Years

Abu Bakr Siddique

632 - 634 CE

2

Omar Ibn Khattab

634 - 644 CE

10

Uthman Ibn Affan

644 - 656 CE

12

Ali ibn Abi Talib

656 - 661 CE

5