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ع ر ف
Ayn-Ra-Fa
General Root Meaning
he knew it, had cognition of it, to discern, became acquainted with it, perceiving a thing by reflection and by consideration of the effect, he requited, to acknowledge a part, manager/orderer/overseer, become submissive/tractable/pleasant, the making to know, fragrant, to inform oneself, learn/discover, seek/desire knowledge, benefaction/goodness, mane (of a horse) waves (of the sea), elevated place/portion, higher/highest, first/foremost, a question or questioning respecting a subject of information in order to know it, commonly received/known, to confess/acknowledge/indicate, high mountain, Mount Arafat.
The difference between arafa & alima is that the former refers to distinct and specific knowledge, while the latter is more general. Opposite to arafa is ankara (to deny) and opposite ot alima is jahila (to be ignorant).
al araf - the elevated place, high dignity, distinguished position, place of discernment or acknowledgement, highest or most elevated faculties of discernment or ma'rifah (knowledge of right and wrong).
ma'ruf - honourable, known, recognised, good, befitting, fairness, kindness, custom of society, usage.

'arafaat (pl. of 'arafat, masculine 'araf, being a version of 'aarif, the active form of 'arafa and/or 'arfun, the informational noun of 'arafa) means 'familiarizations, approbations, recognitions.'

'Arafa (prf. 3rd. m. sing.): He recognized, acknowledged.
'Arafuu (prf. 3rd. m. plu.): They recognized.
'Arafta (prf. 2nd. m. sing.): Thou knew.
Ta'rifu (imp. 2nd. m. sing.): Thou recognize.
Ya'rifuuna (imp. 3rd. m. plu.): They recognize.
Ya'rifuu (imp. 3rd. m. plu. juss. Nun at the end dropped).
Ta'rifanna (imp. 2nd. m. sing, imp.): Thou should surely recognize.
Ta'rifuuna (imp. 2nd. m. plu.): You shall recognize.
Yu'rafu (pip. 3rd. m. sing.): He is recognized.
Yu'rafna (pip. 3rd. f. plu.): They (f) are/will be recognized.
'Arrafa (prf. 2nd. m. sing. II): Made known.
Ta'aarafuu (prf. 3rd. m. plu.): You know each other, recognize each other, do good to each other.
Yata'aarafuuna (imp. 3rd. m. plu.): They will recognize one another.
I'tarafuu (prf. 3rd. m. pl. vb. VIII): they have confessed.
I'tarafnaa (prf. 1st. m. pl.): we have confessed.
mar'uufun (pct. pic.): known or recognized thing that which is good as an universally accepted fact, reputable, fairness, kindness, equity, according to usage, custom of the society, courteous, right.
ma'ruufatun (pct. pic. f. sing.): recognized.
'urfun (n.): seemliness, good.
'urfan (n. acc.): beneficence, goodness, kindness.
   iʿ'tarafū   (1)

9:102
And others (who have) acknowledged their sins. They had mixed a deed righteous (with) other (that was) evil. Perhaps Allah [that] will turn (in mercy) to them. Indeed, Allah (is) Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

   l-aʿrāfi   (2)

7:48
And (will) call out (the) companions (of) the heights (to) men whom they recognize by their marks saying, "Not (has) availed [to] you your gathering and what you were arrogant (about)."

7:46
And between them (will be) a partition, and on the heights (will be) men recognizing all by their marks. And they will call out (to the) companions (of) Paradise that "Peace (be) upon you." Not they have entered it but they hope.

   l-maʿrūfi   (1)

9:67
The hypocrite men and the hypocrite women, some of them (are) of others. They enjoin the wrong and forbid what (is) the right, and they close their hands. They forget Allah, so He has forgotten them. Indeed, the hypocrites, they (are) the defiantly disobedient.

   bil-ʿur'fi   (1)

7:199
Hold (to) forgiveness and enjoin the good, and turn away from the ignorant.

   bil-maʿrūfi   (8)

3:114
They believe in Allah and the Day the Last and they enjoin [with] the right and forbid [from] the wrong and they hasten in the good deeds. And those (are) from the righteous.

31:17
O my son! Establish the prayer and enjoin [with] the right and forbid from the wrong, and be patient over what befalls you. Indeed, that (is) of the matters (of) determination.

2:232
And when you divorce [the] women and they reached their (waiting) term, then (do) not hinder them [that] (from) marrying their husbands when they agree between themselves in a fair manner. That is admonished with it whoever [is] among you believes in Allah and the Day [the] Last; that (is) more virtuous for you and more purer. And Allah knows and you (do) not know.

2:233
And the mothers shall suckle their children (for) two years complete, for whoever wishes to complete the suckling. And upon the father (on) him (is) their provision and their clothing in a fair manner. Not is burdened any soul except its capacity. Not made to suffer (the) mother because of her child and not (the) father (be) because of his child. And on the heirs (is a duty) like that. Then if they both desire weaning through mutual consent of both of them and consultation, then no blame on both of them. And if you want to ask another women to suckle your child then (there is) no blame on you, when you pay what you give in a fair manner. And fear Allah and know that Allah of what you do (is) All-Seer.

2:233
And the mothers shall suckle their children (for) two years complete, for whoever wishes to complete the suckling. And upon the father (on) him (is) their provision and their clothing in a fair manner. Not is burdened any soul except its capacity. Not made to suffer (the) mother because of her child and not (the) father (be) because of his child. And on the heirs (is a duty) like that. Then if they both desire weaning through mutual consent of both of them and consultation, then no blame on both of them. And if you want to ask another women to suckle your child then (there is) no blame on you, when you pay what you give in a fair manner. And fear Allah and know that Allah of what you do (is) All-Seer.

2:234
And those who pass away among you and leave behind wives, (the widows) should wait for themselves (for) four months and ten (days). Then when they reach their (specified) term, then (there is) no blame upon you for what they do concerning themselves in a fair manner. And Allah of what you do (is) All-Aware.

2:236
(There is) no blame upon you if you divorce [the] women whom not you have touched nor you specified for them an obligation (dower). And make provision for them - upon the wealthy according to his means and upon the poor according to his means - a provision in a fair manner, a duty upon the good-doers.

2:241
And for the divorced women, (is) a provision in a fair manner - a duty upon the righteous.

4:6
And test the orphans until [when] they reach[ed] (the age of) marriage, then if you perceive in them sound judgement then deliver to them their wealth. And (do) not eat it extravagantly and hastily (fearing) that they will grow up. And whoever is rich then he should refrain, and whoever is poor then let him eat (of it) in a fair manner. Then when you deliver to them their wealth then take witnesses on them. And is sufficient Allah (as) a Reckoner.

4:25
And whoever (is) not able to among you afford to marry the free chaste [the] believing women then (marry) from what possess[ed] your right hands of your girls - (of) the believers. And Allah knows best about your faith. You (are) from (one) another. So marry them with (the) permission (of) their family and give them their bridal due in a fair manner. (They should be) chaste not those who commit immorality and not those who take secret lovers. Then when they are married and if they commit adultery then for them (is) half (of) what (is) on the free chaste women of the punishment. That (is) for whoever fears committing sin among you and that you be patient (is) better for you. And Allah (is) Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

2:228
And the women who are divorced shall wait concerning themselves (for) three monthly periods. And (it is) not lawful for them that they conceal what (has been) created (by) Allah in their wombs, if they believe in Allah and the Day [the] Last. And their husbands (have) better right to take them back in that (period) if they wish (for) reconciliation. And for them (is the) like (of) that which (is) on them in a reasonable manner, and for the men over them (is) a degree. And Allah (is) All-Mighty, All-Wise.

4:19
O you who believe[d]! Not (is) lawful for you that you inherit the women (by) force. And not you constraint them so that you may take a part (of) what you have given them except that they commit immorality open. And live with them in kindness. But if you dislike them, then perhaps that you dislike a thing and has placed Allah in it good much.

3:104
And let there be among you [a] people inviting to the good [and] enjoining the right, and forbidding from the wrong, and those - they (are) the successful ones.

3:110
You are (the) best (of) people raised for the mankind - enjoining the right and forbidding [from] the wrong and believing in Allah. And if believed (the) People (of) the Book surely would have been good for them. Among them (are) [the] believers, but most of them (are) defiantly disobedient.

9:71
And the believing men and the believing women, some of them (are) allies (of) others. They enjoin the right, and forbid from the wrong, and they establish the prayer and give the zakah, and they obey Allah and His Messenger. Those, will have mercy on them. Allah Indeed, Allah (is) All-Mighty, All-Wise.

9:112
Those who turn in repentance, those who worship, those who praise, those who go out, those who bow down, those who prostrate, those who enjoin the right and those who forbid [on] the wrong, and those who observe (the) limits (of) Allah. And give glad tidings (to) the believers.

22:41
Those who, if We establish them in the land they establish the prayer they give the zakah and they enjoin the right and forbid from the wrong. And for Allah (is the) end (of) the matters.

7:157
Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet, the unlettered, whom they find him written with them in the Taurat and the Injeel. He commands them to the right and forbids them from the wrong, and he makes lawful for them the pure things and makes unlawful for them the impure things and he relieves from them their burden and the fetters which were upon them. So those who believe in him and honor him, and help him and follow the light which has been sent down with him. Those (are) [they] the successful ones."

2:180
Prescribed for you when approaches any of you [the] death, if he leaves good (making) the will for the parents and the near relatives with due fairness a duty on the righteous ones.

2:178
O you who believe[d]! Prescribed for you (is) the legal retribution in (the matter of) the murdered, the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But whoever is pardoned [for it] from his brother anything, then follows up with suitable [and] payment to him with kindness. That (is) a concession from your Lord and mercy. Then whoever transgresses after that, then for him (is) a punishment painful.

   bimaʿrūfin   (3)

2:231
And when you divorce the women and they reach their (waiting) term, then retain them in a fair manner or release them in a fair manner. And (do) not retain them (to) hurt so that you transgress. And whoever does that, then indeed, he wronged himself. And (do) not take (the) Verses (of) Allah (in) jest, and remember (the) Favors (of) Allah upon you and what (is) revealed to you of the Book and [the] wisdom; He instructs you with it. And fear Allah and know that Allah (is) of every thing All-Knower.

2:231
And when you divorce the women and they reach their (waiting) term, then retain them in a fair manner or release them in a fair manner. And (do) not retain them (to) hurt so that you transgress. And whoever does that, then indeed, he wronged himself. And (do) not take (the) Verses (of) Allah (in) jest, and remember (the) Favors (of) Allah upon you and what (is) revealed to you of the Book and [the] wisdom; He instructs you with it. And fear Allah and know that Allah (is) of every thing All-Knower.

2:229
The divorce (is) twice. Then to retain in a reasonable manner or to release (her) with kindness. And (it is) not lawful for you that you take (back) whatever you have given them anything, except if both fear that not they both (can) keep (the) limits (of) Allah. But if you fear that not they both (can) keep (the) limits (of) Allah then (there is) no sin on both of them in what she ransoms concerning it. These (are the) limits (of) Allah, so (do) not transgress them. And whoever transgresses (the) limits (of) Allah then those - they (are) the wrongdoers.

65:2
Then when they have reached their term, then retain them with kindness or part with them with kindness. And take witness two men just among you and establish the testimony for Allah. That is instructed, with it, whoever [is] believes in Allah and the Day the Last. And whoever fears Allah, He will make for him a way out,

65:2
Then when they have reached their term, then retain them with kindness or part with them with kindness. And take witness two men just among you and establish the testimony for Allah. That is instructed, with it, whoever [is] believes in Allah and the Day the Last. And whoever fears Allah, He will make for him a way out,

65:6
Lodge them from where you dwell, (out) of your means and (do) not harm them to distress [on] them. And if they are (in a) state (of) pregnancy, then spend on them until they deliver their burden. Then if they suckle for you, then give them their payment, and consult among yourselves with kindness, but if you disagree, then may suckle for him another (women).

   taʿrifu   (1)

22:72
And when are recited to them Our Verses clear, you will recognize on (the) faces (of) those who disbelieve the denial. They almost attack those who recite to them Our Verses. Say, "Then shall I inform you of worse than that? The Fire, (has) promised it Allah (for) those who disbelieve, and wretched (is) the destination."

83:24
You will recognize in their faces (the) radiance (of) bliss.

   taʿrifuhum   (1)

2:273
For the poor, those who are wrapped up in (the) way (of) Allah, not they are able (to) move about in the earth. Think (about) them, the ignorant one, (that they are) self-sufficien (because) of (their) restraint, you recognize them by their mark. Not (do) they ask the people with importunity. And whatever you spend of good, then indeed, Allah of it (is) All-Knower.

   ʿarrafa   (1)

66:3
And when confided the Prophet to one (of) his wives a statement, and when she informed about it and made it apparent Allah to him, he made known a part of it and avoided [of] a part. Then when he informed her about it, she said, "Who informed you this?" He said, "Has informed me the All-Knower, the All-Aware."

   ʿarrafahā   (1)

47:6
And admit them (to) Paradise, He has made it known to them.

   ʿur'fan   (1)

77:1
By the ones sent forth, one after another,

   ʿarafātin   (1)

2:198
Not is on you any sin that you seek bounty from your Lord. And when you depart from (Mount) Arafat then remember Allah near the Monument [the] Sacred. And remember Him as He (has) guided you, [and] though you were [from] before [it], surely among those who went astray.

   ʿarafū   (1)

2:89
And when came to them a Book of from Allah confirming what (was) with them, though they used to from before (that), pray for victory over those who disbelieved - then when came to them what they recognized, they disbelieved in it. So (the) curse (of) Allah (is) on the disbelievers.

5:83
And when they listen (to) what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with the tears, for what they recognized of the truth. They say, "Our Lord, we have believed so write us with the witnesses.

   fa-iʿ'tarafnā   (1)

40:11
They (will) say, "Our Lord! You gave us death twice and You gave us life twice, and we confess our sins. So is (there) to get out any way?"

   fa-iʿ'tarafū   (1)

67:11
Then they (will) confess their sins, so away with (the) companions (of) the Blaze.

   fataʿrifūnahā   (1)

27:93
And say, "All praise (be) to Allah, He will show you His Signs, and you will recognize them. And not (is) your Lord unaware of what you do."

   faʿarafahum   (1)

12:58
And came (the) brothers (of) Yusuf and they entered upon him; and he recognized them, but they not knew him.

   falaʿaraftahum   (1)

47:30
And if We willed surely, We could show them to and you would know them by their marks; but surely, you will know them by (the) tone (of their) speech. And Allah knows your deeds.

   litaʿārafū   (1)

49:13
O mankind! Indeed, We created you from a male and a female and We made you nations and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, (the) most noble of you near Allah (is the) most righteous of you Indeed, Allah (is) All-Knower, All-Aware.

   maʿrūfun   (1)

2:263
A word kind and (seeking) forgiveness (are) better than a charity followed [it] (by) hurt. And Allah (is) All-Sufficient, All-Forbearing.

47:21
(Is) obedience and a word kind. And when (is) determined the matter, then if they had been true (to) Allah, surely, it would have been better for them.

   maʿrūfin   (3)

60:12
O Prophet! When come to you the believing women pledging to you [on] that not they will associate with Allah anything, and not they will steal, and not they will commit adultery, and not they will kill their children, and not they bring slander, they invent it between their hands and their feet, and not they will disobey you in (the) right, then accept their pledge and ask forgiveness for them (from) Allah. Indeed, Allah (is) Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

2:240
And those who die among you and leave behind (their) wives (should make) a will for their wives, provision for the year without driving (them) out. But if they leave then no blame upon you in what they do concerning themselves [of] honorably. And Allah (is) All-Mighty, All-Wise.

4:114
(There is) no good in much of their secret talk except (he) who orders charity or kindness or conciliation between the people. And who does that seeking pleasure (of) Allah then soon We will give him a reward great.

   maʿrūfan   (5)

4:5
And (do) not give the foolish your wealth which (was) made (by) Allah for you a means of support (but) provide (for) them with it and clothe them and speak to them words (of) kindness.

4:8
And when present (at) the (time of) division (of) the relatives and the orphans and the poor, then provide them from it and speak to them words (of) kindness.

31:15
But if they strive against you on that you associate partners with Me what not you have of it any knowledge, then (do) not obey both of them. But accompany them in the world (with) kindness, and follow (the) path (of him) who turns to Me. Then towards Me (is) your return, then I will inform you of what you used (to) do."

33:6
The Prophet (is) closer to the believers than their own selves, and his wives (are) their mothers. And possessors (of) relationships, some of them (are) closer to another in (the) Decree (of) Allah than the believers and the emigrants, except that you do to your friends a kindness. (It) is that in the Book written.

33:32
O wives (of) the Prophet! You are not like anyone among the women. If you fear (Allah), then (do) not be soft in speech, lest should be moved with desi he who, in his heart (is) a disease, but say a word appropriate.

2:235
And (there is) no blame upon you in what you hint [with it] of marriage proposal [to] the women or you conceal it in yourselves. Knows Allah that you will mention them, [and] but (do) not promise them (widows) secretly except that you say a saying honorable. And (do) not resolve (on) the knot (of) marriage until reaches the prescribed term its end. And know that Allah knows what (is) within yourselves so beware of Him. And know that Allah (is) Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.

   maʿrūfatun   (1)

24:53
And they swear by Allah strong their oaths that if you ordered them, surely they (would) go forth. Say, "(Do) not swear. Obedience (is) known. Indeed, Allah (is) All-Aware of what you do."

   walataʿrifannahum   (1)

47:30
And if We willed surely, We could show them to and you would know them by their marks; but surely, you will know them by (the) tone (of their) speech. And Allah knows your deeds.

   yataʿārafūna   (1)

10:45
And the Day He will gather them, as if not they had remained except an hour of the day, they will recognize each other between them. Certainly, (will have) lost those who denied the meeting (with) Allah, and not they were the guided ones.

   yuʿ'rafu   (1)

55:41
Will be known the criminals by their marks and will be seized by the forelocks and the feet.

   yuʿ'rafna   (1)

33:59
O Prophet! Say to your wives and your daughters and (the) women (of) the believers to draw over themselves [of] their outer garments. That (is) more suitable that they should be known and not harmed. And is Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

   yaʿrifū   (1)

23:69
Or (do) not they recognize their Messenger, so they him (are) rejecting?

   yaʿrifūna   (2)

7:46
And between them (will be) a partition, and on the heights (will be) men recognizing all by their marks. And they will call out (to the) companions (of) Paradise that "Peace (be) upon you." Not they have entered it but they hope.

2:146
(To) those whom We gave [them] the Book, they recognize it like they recognize their sons. And indeed, a group of them surely they conceal the Truth while they know.

6:20
Those (to) whom We have given them the Book they recognize him as they recognize their sons. Those who lost themselves then they (do) not believe.

16:83
They recognize (the) Favor (of) Allah; then they deny it. And most of them (are) the disbelievers.

   yaʿrifūnahu   (2)

6:20
Those (to) whom We have given them the Book they recognize him as they recognize their sons. Those who lost themselves then they (do) not believe.

2:146
(To) those whom We gave [them] the Book, they recognize it like they recognize their sons. And indeed, a group of them surely they conceal the Truth while they know.

   yaʿrifūnahā   (1)

12:62
And he said to his servants, "Put their merchandise in their saddlebags so that they may recognize it when they go back to their people so that they may return."

   yaʿrifūnahum   (1)

7:48
And (will) call out (the) companions (of) the heights (to) men whom they recognize by their marks saying, "Not (has) availed [to] you your gathering and what you were arrogant (about)."

Acknowledgements
IslamAwakened
would like to thank all those who made these Root Pages possible.
In their formulation we have drawn from the work of ...