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al-Baqarah (The Cow)
as rendered by N J Dawood (draft)

N J Dawood (draft) rendition of Surah The Cow(al-Baqarah)
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2:1 Alif Lam Mim.
2:2 No doubt is there about that Book: It is a guide for the God–fearing.
2:3 Who believe in the unseen and are steadfast in prayer; who give in alms from what We gave them;
2:4 who believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you, and have absolute faith in the life to come.
2:5 These are rightly guided by their Lord; these shall surely triumph.
2:6 As for the unbelievers, it is the same whether or not you forewarn them; they will not have faith.
2:7 God has set a seal upon their hearts and ears; their sight is dimmed and grievous punishment awaits them.
2:8 There are some who declare: 'We believe in God and the Last Day,' yet they are no true believers.
2:9 They seek to deceive God and those who believe in Him: but they deceive none save themselves, though they may not perceive it.
2:10 There is a sickness in their hearts which God has aggravated: they shall be sternly punished for the lies they tell.
2:11 When they are told: 'You shall not do evil in the land,' they reply: 'Surely we are doing only what is good.'
2:12 But it is they who are the evil–doers, though they may not perceive it.
2:13 And when they are told: 'Believe as others believe,' they reply: 'Are we to believe as fools believe?' It is they who are ;' the fools, if they but knew it!
2:14 When they meet the faithful, they declare: 'We, too, are believers.' But when alone with their devils they say to them: 'We follow none but you: we were only mocking.'
2:15 God will mock them and keep them long in sin, ever straying from the right path.
2:16 Such are those that barter guidance for error: they profit nothing, nor are they on the right path.
2:17 They are like one who kindled a fire, but as soon as it lit up all around him, God put it out and left him in darkness: they do not see.
2:18 Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will never return to the right path.
2:19 Or like those who, beneath a dark storm–cloud charged with thunder and lightning, thrust their fingers into their ears at the sound of every thunder–clap for fear of death (God thus encompasses the unbelievers).
2:20 The lightning almost snatches away their sight: whenever it flashes upon them they walk on, but as soon as it darkens they stand still. Indeed, if God pleased, He could take away their hearing and their sight: God has power over all things.
2:21 You people! Serve your Lord, who has created you and those who have gone before you, so that you may guard yourselves against evil;
2:22 Who has made the earth a bed for you and the sky a dome, and has sent down water from the sky to bring forth fruits for your sustenance. Do not knowingly set up other gods beside God.
2:23 If you doubt what We have revealed to Our servant, produce one chapter comparable to it. Call upon your idols to assist you, if what you say be true.
2:24 But if you fail (as you are sure to fail), then guard yourselves against the Fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the unbelievers.
2:25 Proclaim good tidings to those who have faith and do good works. They shall dwell in gardens watered by running streams: whenever they are given fruit to eat they will say: 'This is what we used to eat before,' for they shall be given the like. Wedded to chaste spouses, they shall abide therein for ever.
2:26 God does not disdain to make comparison with a gnat or with a larger creature. The faithful know that it is the truth from their Lord, but the unbelievers ask: 'What could God mean by this comparison?' By such comparisons God confounds many and enlightens many. But He confounds none except the evil–doers,
2:27 who break His covenant after accepting it, and put asunder what He has bidden to be united, and perpetrate corruption in the land. These will surely be the losers.
2:28 How can you deny God? Did He not give you life when you were dead, and will He not cause you to die and then restore you to life? Will you not return to Him at last?
2:29 He created for you all that the earth contains; then, ascending to the sky, He fashioned it into seven heavens. He has knowledge of all things.
2:30 When your Lord said to the angels: 'I am placing on the earth one that shall rule as My deputy,' they replied: 'Will You put there one that will do evil and shed blood, when we have for so long sung Your praises and sanctified Your name?' He said: 'I know what you know not.'
2:31 He taught Adam the names of all things and then set them before the angels, saying: 'Tell Me the names of these, if what you say be true.'
2:32 Glory be to You,' they replied, 'we have no knowledge except that which You have given us. You alone are all–knowing and wise.'
2:33 Then said He: 'Adam, tell them their names.' And when Adam had named them, He said: 'Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of the heavens and the earth, and know all that you reveal and all that you conceal?'
2:34 And when We said to the angels: 'Prostrate yourselves before Adam,' they all prostrated themselves except Satan, who in his pride refused and became an unbeliever.
2:35 We said: 'Adam, dwell with your wife in Paradise and eat of its fruits to your hearts' content wherever you will. But never approach this tree or you shall both become transgressors.'
2:36 But Satan lured them thence and brought about their banishment. 'Get you down,' We said, 'and be enemies to each other. The earth will for a while provide your dwelling and your sustenance.'
2:37 Then Adam received commandments from his Lord, and his Lord relented towards him. He is the Relenting One, the Merciful.
2:38 Get you down hence, all,' We said. 'When My guidance is revealed to you, those that follow My guidance shall have nothing to fear or to regret;
2:39 but those that deny and reject Our revelations shall be the inmates of the Fire, and there shall they abide for ever.'
2:40 O Children of Israel, remember the favour I have bestowed upon you. Keep your covenant, and I will be true to Mine. Dread My power.
2:41 Have faith in My revelations, which confirm your Scriptures, and do not be the first to deny them. Do not sell My revelations for a paltry price; fear Me.
2:42 Do not confound truth with falsehood, nor knowingly conceal the truth.
2:43 Attend to your prayers, render the alms levy, and kneel with those who kneel.
2:44 Would you enjoin righteousness on men and forget it yourselves? Yet you read the Scriptures. Have you no sense?
2:45 Fortify yourselves with patience and with prayer. This may indeed be an exacting discipline, but not to the devout,
2:46 who know that they will meet their Lord and that to Him they will return.
2:47 Children of Israel, remember the favour I have bestowed upon you, and that I exalted you above the nations.
2:48 Guard yourselves against the day on which no soul shall stand for another: when no intercession shall be accepted for it, no ransom be taken from it, no help be given it.
2:49 Remember how We delivered you from Pharaoh's people, who had oppressed you cruelly, slaying your sons and sparing only your daughters. Surely that was a great trial by your Lord.
2:50 We parted the sea for you and, taking you to safety, drowned Pharaoh's men before your very eyes.
2:51 We made a tryst with Moses for the fortieth night, and in his absence you took up the calf and thus committed evil.
2:52 Yet after that We pardoned you, so that you might give thanks.
2:53 We gave Moses the Scriptures and knowledge of right and wrong, so that you might be rightly guided.
2:54 Moses said to his people: 'You have wronged yourselves, my people, in worshipping the calf. Turn in penitence to your Creator and slay the culprits among you. That will be best for you in your Creator's sight.' And He relented towards you. He is the Relenting One, the Merciful.
2:55 When you said to Moses: 'We will not believe in you until we see God with our own eyes,' the thunderbolt struck you while you were looking on.
2:56 Then We revived you from your stupor, so that you might give thanks.
2:57 We caused the clouds to draw their shadow over you and sent down for you manna and quails,' saying: 'Eat of the good things We have given you.' Indeed, they did not wrong Us, but they wronged themselves.
2:58 'Enter this city,' We said, 'and eat where you will to your hearts' content. Make your way reverently through the gates, saying: "We repent." We shall forgive you your sins and bestow abundance on the righteous.'
2:59 But that which they were told the wrongdoers replaced with other words; and We let loose on the wrongdoers a scourge from heaven as punishment for their misdeeds.
2:60 When Moses requested water for his people We said to him: 'Strike the Rock with your staff.' Thereupon twelve springs gushed from the Rock, and each tribe knew their drinking–place.
2:61 We said: 'Eat and drink of that which God has provided and do not foul the land with evil.' 'Moses,' you said, 'we will no longer put up with this monotonous diet. Call on your Lord to give us some of the varied produce of the earth, green herbs and cucumbers, corn and lentils and onions.' 'What!' he answered. 'Would you exchange that which is good for what is worse? Go back to some city. There you will find all you have asked for.' Shame and misery were stamped upon them and they incurred the wrath of God; because they disbelieved God's signs and slew the prophets unjustly; because they were rebels and transgressors.
2:62 Believers, Jews, Christians, and Sabaeans –– whoever believes in God and the Last Day and does what is right shall be rewarded by their Lord; they have nothing to fear or to regret.
2:63 We made a covenant with you and raised the Mount above you, saying: 'Grasp fervently what We have given you, and bear in mind its precepts, that You may guard yourselves against evil.'
2:64 Yet after that you turned away, and but for God's grace and mercy you would have surely been among the lost.
2:65 You have heard those of you that broke the Sabbath. We said to them: 'You shall be changed into detested apes.'
2:66 We made their fate an example to their own generation and to those that followed them, and a lesson to the righteous.
2:67 When Moses said to his people: 'God commands you to sacrifice a cow,' they replied: 'Are you trifling with us?' 'God forbid that I should be so foolish!' he rejoined.
2:68 'Call on your Lord,' they said, 'to make known to us what kind of cow she shall be.' He replied:. 'Your Lord says: "Let her be. neither an old cow nor a young heifer, but in between." Do, therefore, as you are bidden.'
2:69 'Call on your Lord,' they said, 'to make known to us what her colour shall be.' He replied: 'Your Lord says: "Let the cow be yellow, a rich Yellow, pleasing to those that see it.
2:70 'Call on your Lord,' they said, 'to make known to us the exact type of cow she shall be; for to us cows look all alike. If God wills we shall be rightly guided.'
2:71 Moses replied: 'Your Lord says: "Let her be a healthy cow, not worn out with ploughing the earth or watering the field; a cow free from any blemish."' 'Now you have told us all,' they answered. And they slaughtered a cow, after they had nearly declined to do so.
2:72 And when you slew a man and then fell out with one another concerning him, God made known what you concealed.
2:73 We said: 'Strike him with a part of it.' Thus God restores the dead to life and shows you His signs, that you may grow in understanding.
2:74 Yet after that your hearts became as hard as rock or even harder; for from some rocks rivers take their course: some break asunder and water gushes from them: and others tumble down through fear of God. God is not unaware of what you do.
2:75 Do you then hope that they will believe in you, when some of them have already heard the Word of God and knowingly perverted it, although they understood its meaning?
2:76 When they meet the faithful they declare: 'We, too, are believers.' But when alone they say to each other: 'Must you declare to them what God has revealed to you? They will only dispute with you about it in our Lord's presence. Have you no sense?'
2:77 Do they not know that God has knowledge of all that they conceal and all that they reveal?
2:78 There are illiterate men among them who, ignorant of the Scriptures, know of nothing but wishful fancies and vague conjecture.
2:79 Woe betide those that write the scriptures with their own hands and then declare: 'This is from God,' in order to gain some paltry end. Woeful shall be their fate, because of what their hands have written, because of what they did!
2:80 They declare: 'The Fire will never touch us –– except for a few days.' Say: 'Did God make you such a promise –– God will not break His promise –– or do you assert of God what you know not?'
2:81 Truly, those that commit evil and become engrossed in their sin shall be the inmates of the Fire; there shall they abide for ever.
2:82 But those that have faith and do good works are the heirs of Paradise; there shall they abide for ever.
2:83 When We made a covenant with the Israelites We said: 'Serve none but God. Show kindness to your parents, to your kinsfolk, to orphans, and to' the destitute. Exhort men to righteousness. Attend to your prayers and render the alms levy.' But you all broke your covenant except a few, and paid no heed.
2:84 And when We made a covenant with you We said: 'You shall not shed your kinsmen's blood or turn them out of their dwellings.' To this you consented and bore witness.
2:85 Yet there you were, slaying your own kinsfolk, and turning a number of them out of their dwellings, and helping each other against them with sin and aggression; though had they come to you as captives, You would have ransomed them. Surely their expulsion was unlawful. Can you believe in one part of the Scriptures and deny another? Those of you that act thus shall be rewarded with disgrace in this world and with grievous punishment on the Day of Resurrection. God is never heedless of what you do.
2:86 Such are they who buy the life of this world at the price of the life to come. Their punishment shall not be mitigated, nor shall they be helped.
2:87 To Moses We gave the Scriptures and after him We sent other apostles. We gave Jesus son of Mary veritable signs and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. Will you then scorn each apostle whose message does not suit your fancies, charging some with imposture and slaying others?
2:88 They say: 'Our hearts are sealed.' But God has cursed them for their unbelief. They have but little faith.
2:89 And now that a Book conforming their own has come to them from God, they deny it, although they know it to be the truth and have long prayed for help against the unbelievers. God's curse be upon the infidels!
2:90 Evil is that for which they have bartered away their souls. To deny God's own revelation, grudging that He should reveal His bounty to whom He chooses from among His servants! They have incurred God's most inexorable wrath. Ignominious punishment awaits the unbelievers.
2:91 When they are told: 'Believe in what God has revealed,' they reply: 'We believe in what was revealed to us.' But they deny what has since been revealed, although it is the truth, corroborating their own scriptures. Say: 'Why did you kill the prophets of God, if you are true believers?
2:92 Moses came to you with veritable signs, but in his absence you worshipped the calf and committed evil.'
2:93 When We made a covenant with you and raised the Mount above you, saying: 'Grasp fervently what We have given you and hear Our commandments,' you replied: 'We hear but disobey.'. For their unbelief they were made to drink down the calf into their hearts. Say: 'Evil is that. to which your faith prompts you if you are indeed believers.'
2:94 Say: 'If God's Abode of the Hereafter is for yourselves alone, to the exclusion of all others, then wish for death if your claim be true!'
2:95 But they will never wish for death, because of what they did; for God knows the evil–doers.
2:96 Indeed, you will find they love this life more than other men: more than the pagans do. Each one of them would love to live a thousand years. But even if their lives were indeed prolonged, that will surely not save them from Our scourge. God is watching all their actions.
2:97 Say: 'Whoever is an enemy of Gabriel' (who has by God's grace revealed to you the Koran as a guide and joyful tidings for the faithful, confirming previous scriptures)
2:98 'whoever is an enemy of God, His angels, or His Apostles, or of Gabriel or Michael, will surely find that God is the enemy of the unbelievers.'
2:99 We have sent down to you clear revelations: none will deny them except the evil–doers.
2:100 What! Whenever they make a covenant, must some of them cast it aside? Most of them are unbelievers.
2:101 And now that an apostle has come to them from God confirming their own Scriptures, some of those to whom the Scriptures were given cast off the Book of God over their backs as though they know nothing
2:102 and accept what the devils tell of Solomon's kingdom. Not that Solomon was an unbeliever: it is the devils who are unbelievers. They teach men witchcraft and that which was revealed to the angels Harut and Marut in Babylon. Yet they never instruct any man without saying to him beforehand: 'We have been sent to tempt you; do not renounce your faith.' From these two, they learn a charm by which they can create discord between husband and wife, although they can harm none with what they learn except by God's leave. They learn, indeed, what harms them and does not profit them; yet they know full well that anyone who engaged in that traffic would have no share in the life to come. Vile is that for which they have sold their souls, if they but knew it!
2:103 Had they embraced the Faith and kept from evil, far better for them would God's reward have been, if they but knew it.
2:104 Believers, do not say Ra'ina; but say Unzurna. Take heed; woeful punishment awaits the unbelievers.
2:105 The unbelievers among the People of the Book, And the pagans, resent that any blessings should have been sent down to you from your Lord. But God chooses whom He will for His mercy. God's grace is infinite.
2:106 If We abrogate a verse or cause it to be forgotten, We will replace it by a better one or one similar. Did you not know that God has power over all things?
2:107 Did you not know that it is God who has sovereignty over the heavens and the earth, and that there is none besides God to protect or help you?
2:108 Would you rather demand of your Apostle that which was once demanded of Moses? He that barters faith for unbelief has surely strayed from the right path.
2:109 Many among the People of the Book wish, through envy, to lead you back to unbelief, now that you have embraced the Faith and the truth has been made plain to them. Forgive them and bear with them until God makes known His will. God has power over all things.
2:110 Attend to your prayers and render the alms levy. Whatever good you do shall be recompensed by God. God is watching all your actions.
2:111 They declare: 'None shall enter Paradise but Jews and Christians.' Such are their wishful fancies. Say: 'Let us have your proof, if what you say be true.'
2:112 Indeed, those that submit to God and do good works shall be recompensed by their Lord: they shall have nothing to fear or to regret.
2:113 The Jews say the Christians are misguided, and the Christians say it is the Jews who are misguided. Yet they both read the Scriptures. And the ignorant say the same of both. God will on the Day of Resurrection judge their disputes.
2:114 Who is more wicked than the men who seek to destroy the mosques of God and forbid His name to be mentioned in them, when it behoves these men to enter them with fear in their hearts? They shall be held up to shame in this world, and in the world to come grievous punishment awaits them.
2:115 To God belongs the east and the west. Whichever way you turn there is the face of God. He is omnipresent and all knowing.
2:116 They say: 'God has begotten a son.' Glory be to Him! His is what the heavens and the earth contain; all is obedient to Him.
2:117 Creator of the heavens and the earth! When He decrees a thing, He need only say 'Be,' and it is.
2:118 The ignorant ask: 'Why does God not speak to us or give us a sign?' The same demand was made by those before them: their hearts are all alike. But to those whose faith is firm We have already revealed Our signs.
2:119 We have sent you forth to proclaim the truth and to give warning. You shall not be questioned about the heirs of Hell.
2:120 You will please neither the Jews nor the Christians unless you follow their faith. Say: 'God's guidance is the only guidance.' And if after all the knowledge you have been given you yield to their desires, there shall be none to help or protect you from the wrath of God.
2:121 Those to whom We have given the Book, and who read it as it ought to be read, truly believe in it; those that deny it will surely be the losers.
2:122 Children of Israel, remember the favour I have bestowed upon you, and that I exalted you above the nations.
2:123 Guard yourselves against a day on which no soul shall stand for another: when no ransom shall be accepted from it, no intercession avail it, no help be given it.
2:124 When his Lord put Abraham to the proof by enjoining on him certain commandments and Abraham fulfilled them, He said: 'I have appointed you a leader of mankind.' 'And what of my descendants?' asked Abraham. 'My covenant,' said He, 'does not apply to the evil–doers.'
2:125 We made the House a resort and a sanctuary for mankind, saying: 'Make the place where Abraham stood a house of worship.' We enjoined Adam and Ishmael to cleanse Our House for those who walk round it, who meditate in it, and who kneel and prostrate themselves.'
2:126 Lord,' said Abraham, 'make this a secure land and bestow plenty upon its people, those of them that believe in God and the Last Day.' 'As for those that do not,' He answered, 'I shall let them live awhile, and then shall drag them to the scourge of the Fire: an evil fate.'
2:127 Abraham and Ishmael built the House and dedicated it' saying: 'Accept this from us, Lord. You are the One that hears all and knows all.
2:128 Lord, make us submissive to You; make of our descendants a community that will submit to You. Teach us our rites of worship and turn to us with mercy; You are the Forgiving One the Merciful.
2:129 Lord, send forth to them an apostle of their own who shall declare to them Your revelations, and shall instruct them in the Book and in wisdom, and shall purify them of sin. You are the Mighty, the Wise One.'
2:130 Who but a foolish man would renounce the faith of Abraham? We chose him in this world, and in the world to come he shall abide among the righteous.
2:131 When his Lord said to him: Submit,' he answered: 'I have submitted to the Lord of the worlds.
2:132 Abraham enjoined the faith on his children, and so did Jacob, saying: 'My children, God has chosen for you the true faith. Do not depart this life except in full submission.'
2:133 Were you present when death came to Jacob? He said to his children: 'What will you worship when I am gone?' They replied: 'We will worship your God and the God of your forefathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac: the One God. To Him we will submit.'(Muslims)
2:134 That community has passed away. Theirs is what they did and yours what you have done. You shall not be questioned about their actions.
2:135 They say: 'Accept the Jewish or the Christian faith and you shall be rightly guided.' Say: 'By no means! We believe in the faith of Abraham, the upright one. He was no idolater.'
2:136 Say: 'We believe in God and that which has been revealed to us; in what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes; to Moses and Jesus and the other prophets by their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them, and to Him we submit.'(Muslims)
2:137 If they accept your faith, they shall be rightly guided; if they reject it, they shall surely be in schism. Against them God is your all–sufficient defender. He hears all and knows all.
2:138 Islam is the Baptism of God, and who is better to baptize than God? And Him do we serve.
2:139 Say: 'Would you dispute with us about God, who is our Lord and your Lord? We shall both be judged by our works. To Him alone we are devoted.
2:140 Do you claim that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes, were all Jews or Christians?' Say: 'Who knows better, you or God? Who is more wicked than the man who hides a testimony he has received from God? God is never heedless of what you do.'
2:141 That community has passed away. Theirs is what they did and yours what you have done. You shall not be questioned about their actions.
2:142 The foolish will ask: 'What has made them turn away from their kiblah?' Say: 'The East and the West are God's. He guides whom He will to the right path.'
2:143 Thus have We made you a middle people, so that you may testify against mankind and that your own Apostle may testify against you. We decreed your former kiblah only in order that We might know the Apostle's true adherents and those who were to disown him. It was indeed a hard test, but not to those whom God has guided. God's aim was not to make your faith fruitless. He is compassionate and merciful to men.
2:144 Many a time have We seen you turn your face towards the sky. We will make you turn towards a kiblah that will please you. Turn your face towards the Holy Mosque; wherever you be, turn your faces towards it. Those to whom the Scriptures were given know this to be the truth from their Lord. God is never heedless of what they do.
2:145 But even if you gave them every proof they would not accept your kiblah, nor would you accept theirs; nor would any of them accept the kiblah of the other. If, after all the knowledge you have been given, you yield to their desires, then you will surely become an evil–doer.
2:146 Those to whom We gave the Scriptures know Our apostle as they know their own sons. But some of them deliberately conceal the truth.
2:147 This is the truth from your Lord: therefore never doubt it.
2:148 Each one has a goal towards –– which he turns. But wherever you are, emulate one another in good works. God will bring you all before Him. God has power over all things.
2:149 Whichever way you depart, face towards the Holy Mosque. This is surely the truth from your Lord. God is never heedless of what you do.
2:150 Whichever way you depart, face towards the Holy Mosque: and wherever you are, face towards it, so that men will have no cause to reproach you, except the evil–doers among them. Have no fear of them; fear Me, so that I may perfect My favour to you and that you may be rightly guided.
2:151 Thus have We sent forth to you an apostle of your own who will recite to you Our revelations and purify you of sin, who will instruct you in the Book and in wisdom and teach you that of which you had no knowledge.
2:152 Remember Me, then, and I will remember you. Give thanks to Me and never deny Me.
2:153 Believers, fortify yourselves with patience and with prayer. God is with those that are patient.
2:154 Do not say that those slain in the cause of God are dead. They are alive, but you are not aware of them.
2:155 We shall test your steadfastness with fear and famine, with loss of property and life and crops. Give good news to those who endure with fortitude;
2:156 who in adversity say: 'We belong to God, and to Him we shall return.'
2:157 On such men will be God's blessing and mercy; such men are rightly guided.
2:158 Safa and Marwa are two of God's beacons. It shall be no offence for the pilgrim or the visitor to the Sacred House to walk around them. He that does good of his own accord shall be recompensed by God. God has knowledge of all things.
2:159 Those that hide the clear proofs and the guidance We have revealed after We had proclaimed them in the Scriptures shall be cursed by God and cursed by those who invoke damnation;
2:160 except those that repent and mend their ways and make known the truth. Towards them I shall relent. I am the Relenting One, the Merciful.
2:161 But the infidels who die unbelievers shall incur the curse of God, the angels, and all mankind.
2:162 Under it they shall remain for ever; their punishment shall not be mitigated, nor shall they be reprieved.
2:163 Your God is one God. There is no god –– but Him. He is the Compassionate, the Merciful.
2:164 In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of night and day; in the ships that sail the ocean with cargoes beneficial to man; in the water which God sends down from the sky and with which He revives the earth after its death, dispersing over it all manner of beasts; in the disposal of the winds, and in 'the clouds that are driven between sky and earth: surely in these there are signs for rational men.
2:165 Yet there are some who worship idols, bestowing on them the adoration due to God (though the love of God is stronger in the faithful). But when they face their punishment the wrongdoers will learn that might is God's alone, and God is stern in retribution.
2:166 When they face their punishment those who were followed will disown their followers, and the bonds which now unite them will break asunder.
2:167 Those who followed them will say: 'Could we but live again, we would disown them as they have now disowned us.' Thus will God show them their own works. They shall sigh with remorse, but shall never emerge from the Fire.
2:168 You people! Eat of what is lawful and wholesome on the earth and do not walk in Satan's footsteps, for he is your inveterate foe.
2:169 He enjoins on you evil and lewdness, and bids you assert about God what you know not.
2:170 When they are told: 'Follow what God has revealed,' they reply: 'We will follow what our fathers practised,' even though their fathers understood nothing and had no guidance.
2:171 The unbelievers are like beasts which, call out to them as one may, can hear nothing but a shout and a cry. Deaf, dumb, and blind, they understand nothing.
2:172 Believers, eat of the wholesome things with which We have provided you and give thanks to God, if it is Him you worship.
2:173 He has forbidden you carrion, blood, and the flesh of swine; also any flesh that is consecrated other than in the name of God. But whoever is driven by necessity, intending neither to sin nor to transgress, shall incur no guilt. God is forgiving and merciful.
2:174 Those that suppress any part of the Scriptures which God has revealed in order to gain some paltry end shall swallow nothing but fire into their bellies. On the Day of Resurrection God will neither speak to them nor purify them. Woeful punishment awaits them.
2:175 Such are those that barter guidance for error and forgiveness for punishment. How steadfastly they seek. the Fire!
2:176 That is because God has revealed the Book with the truth; those that disagree about it are in extreme schism.
2:177 Righteousness does not consist in whether you face towards the East or the West. The righteous man is he who believes in God and the Last Day, in the angels and the Book and the prophets; who, though he loves it dearly, gives away his wealth to kinsfolk, to orphans, to the destitute, to the traveller in need and to beggars, and for the redemption of captives; who attends to his prayers and renders the alms levy; who is true to his promises and steadfast in trial and adversity and in times of war. Such are the true believers; such are the God–fearing.
2:178 Believers, retaliation is decreed for you in bloodshed: a free man for a free man, a slave for a slave, and a female for a female. He who is pardoned by his aggrieved brother shall be prosecuted according to usage and shall pay him a liberal fine. This is a merciful dispensation from your Lord. He that transgresses thereafter shall be sternly punished.
2:179 Men of understanding! In retaliation you have a safeguard for your lives; perchance you will guard yourselves against evil.
2:180 It is decreed that when death approaches, those of you that leave property shall bequeath it equitably to parents and kindred. This is a duty incumbent on the righteous.
2:181 He that alters a will after hearing it shall be accountable for his crime. God hears all and knows all.
2:182 He that suspects an error or an injustice on the part of a testator and brings about a settlement among the parties incurs no guilt. God is forgiving and merciful.
2:183 Believers, fasting is decreed for you as it was decreed for those before you; perchance you will guard yourselves against evil.
2:184 Fast a certain number of days, but if any one among you is ill or on a journey, let him fast a similar number of days later; and for those that cannot [1] endure it there is a penance ordained: the feeding of a poor man. He that does good of his own accord shall be well rewarded; but to fast is better for you, if you but knew it.
2:185 In the month of Ramadan the Koran was revealed, a book of guidance for mankind –– with proofs of guidance distinguishing right from wrong. Therefore whoever of you is present in that month let him fast. But he who is ill or on a journey shall fast a similar number of days later on. God desires your well–being, not your discomfort. He desires you to fast the whole month so that you may magnify God and render thanks to Him for giving you His guidance.
2:186 If My servants question you about Me, tell them that I am near. I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he calls to Me; therefore let them answer My call and put their trust in Me, that they may be rightly guided.
2:187 It is now lawful for you to lie with your wives on the night of the fast; they are a comfort to you as you are to them. God knew that you were deceiving yourselves. He has relented towards you and pardoned you. Therefore you may now lie with them and seek what God has ordained for you. Eat and drink until you can tell a white thread from a black one in the light of the coming dawn. Then resume the fast till nightfall and do not approach them, but stay at your prayers in the mosques. These are the bounds set by God: do not approach them. Thus He makes known His revelations to mankind that they may guard themselves against evil.
2:188 Do not devour one another's property by unjust means, nor bribe the judges with it in order that you may wrongfully and knowingly usurp the possessions of other men.
2:189 They question you about the phases of the moon. Say: 'They are seasons fixed for mankind and for the pilgrimage.' Righteousness does not consist in entering your dwellings from the back.[1] The righteous man is he that fears God. Enter your dwellings by their doors and fear God, so that you may prosper.
2:190 Fight for the sake of God those that fight against you, but do not attack them first. God does not love aggressors.
2:191 Slay them wherever you find them. Drive them out of the places from which they drove you. Idolatry is more grievous than bloodshed. But do not fight them within the precincts of the Holy Mosque unless they attack you there; if they attack you put them to the sword. Thus shall the unbelievers be rewarded:
2:192 but if they mend their ways, know that God is forgiving and merciful.
2:193 Fight against them until idolatry is no more and God's religion reigns supreme. But if they desist, fight none except the evil–doers.
2:194 A sacred month for a sacred month: sacred things too are subject to retaliation. If anyone attacks you, attack him as –– he attacked you. Have fear of God, and know that God is with the righteous.
2:195 Give generously for the cause of God and do not with your own hands cast yourselves into destruction. Be charitable; God loves the charitable.
2:196 Make the pilgrimage and visit the Sacred House for His sake. If you cannot, send such offerings as you can afford and do not shave your heads until the offerings have reached their destination. But if any of you is ill or suffers from an ailment of the head, he must do penance either by fasting or by almsgiving or by offering a sacrifice. If in peacetime anyone among you combines the visit with the pilgrimage, he must offer such gifts as he can afford; but if he lacks the means let him fast three days during the pilgrimage and seven when he has returned; that is, ten days in all. That is incumbent on him whose family are not present at the Holy Mosque. Have fear of God: know that God is stern in retribution.
2:197 Make the pilgrimage in the appointed months. He that intends to perform it in those months must abstain from sexual intercourse, obscene language, and acrimonious disputes while on pilgrimage. God is aware of whatever good you do. Provide well for yourselves: the best provision is piety. Fear Me, then, you that are endowed with understanding.
2:198 It shall be no offence for you to seek the bounty of your Lord. When you come running from 'Arafat[1] remember God as you approach the sacred monument. Remember Him that gave you guidance when you were in error.
2:199 Then go out from the place whence the pilgrims will go out and implore the forgiveness of God. God is for giving and merciful.
2:200 And when you have fulfilled your sacred duties, remember God as you remember your forefathers or with deeper reverence. There are some who Say: 'Lord, give us abundance in this world.' These shall have no share in the world to come.
2:201 But there are others who say: 'Lord, give us what is good both in this world and in the world to come, and keep us from the torment of the Fire.'
2:202 These shall have a share, according to what they did. Swift is God's reckoning.
2:203 Give glory to God on the appointed days. He that departs on the second day incurs no sin, nor does he who stays on longer, if he truly fears God. Have fear of God, then, and know that you shall all be gathered before Him.
2:204 There are some whose views on this life please you: they even call on God to vouch for that which is in their hearts; whereas in fact they are the deadliest of your opponents.
2:205 No sooner do they leave you than they hasten to do evil in the land, destroying crops and cattle. God does not love evil.
2:206 When they are told: 'Have fear of God,' vanity carries them off to sin. Sufficient for them shall be Hell, an evil resting–place.
2:207 But there are others who would give away their eyes in order to find favour with God. God is compassionate to His servants.
2:208 Believers, submit all of you to God and do not walk in Satan's footsteps; he is your inveterate foe.
2:209 If you lapse after the veritable signs that have been shown to you, know that God is mighty and wise.
2:210 Are they waiting for God to come down to them in the shadow of a cloud, with all the angels? Their fate will have been settled then. To God shall all things return.
2:211 Ask the Israelites how many conspicuous signs We gave them. He that tampers with the gift of God after it is bestowed on him shall find that God is stern in retribution.
2:212 For the unbelievers the life of this world is decked with all manner of temptations. They scoff at the faithful, but those that fear God shall be above them on the Day of resurrection. God gives unstintingly to whom He will.
2:213 Mankind were once but one community. Then God sent forth prophets to give them good news and to warn them, and with these He sent down the Book with the Truth, that it might serve as arbiter in the disputes of men. (None disputed it save those to whom it was given, and that was through envy of one another, after veritable signs had been vouchsafed them.) So God guided by His will those who believed in the truth which had been disputed. God guides whom He will to a straight path.
2:214 Did you suppose that you would go to Paradise untouched by the suffering which was endured by those before you? Affliction and adversity befell them; and so shaken were they that each apostle, and those who shared his faith, cried out: 'When will God's help come?' God's help is ever near.
2:215 They will ask you about almsgiving. Say: 'Whatever you bestow in charity must go to parents and to kinsfolk, to the orphans and to the destitute and to the traveller in need. God is aware of whatever good you do.'
2:216 Fighting is obligatory for you, much as you dislike it. But you may hate a thing although it is good for you, and love a thing although it is bad for you. God knows, but you know not.
2:217 They ask you about the sacred month. Say: 'To fight in this month is a grave offence; but to debar others from the path of God, to deny Him, and to expel His worshippers from the Holy Mosque, is far more grave in His sight. Idolatry is more grievous than bloodshed.' They will not cease to fight against you until they force you to renounce your faith –– if they are able. But whoever of you recants and dies an unbeliever, his works shall come to nothing in this world and in the world to come. Such men shall be the tenants of the Fire, wherein they shall abide for ever.
2:218 Those that have embraced the Faith, and those that have fled their land and fought for the cause of God, may hope for God's mercy. God is forgiving and merciful.
2:219 They ask you about drinking and gambling. Say: 'There is great harm in both, although they have some benefit for men; but their harm is far greater than their benefit.' They ask you what they should give in alms. Say: 'What you can spare.' Thus God makes plain to you His revelations so that you may reflect
2:220 upon this world and the hereafter. They question you concerning orphans. Say: 'To deal justly with them is best. If you mix their affairs with yours, remember they are your brothers. God knows the unjust from the just. If God pleased, He could afflict you. God is mighty and wise.
2:221 You shall not wed pagan women, unless they embrace the Faith. A believing slave–girl is better than an idolatress, although she may please you. Nor shall you wed idolaters, unless they embrace the Faith. A believing slave is better than an idolater, although he may please you. These call you to the Fire; but God calls you, by His will, to Paradise and to forgiveness. He makes plain His revelations to mankind, so that they may take heed.
2:222 They ask you about menstruation. Say: 'It is an indisposition. Keep aloof from women during their menstrual periods and do not approach them until they are clean again; when they are clean, have intercourse with them whence God enjoined you. God loves those that turn to Him in penitence and strive to keep themselves clean.'
2:223 Women are your fields: go, then, into your fields whence you please. Do good works and fear God. Bear in mind that you shall meet Him. Give good tidings to the believers.
2:224 Do not make God, when you swear by Him, a means to prevent you from dealing justly, from guarding yourselves against evil, and from making peace among men. God knows all and hears all.
2:225 God will not call you to account for that which is inadvertent in your oaths. But He will take you to task for that which is intended in your hearts. God is forgiving and lenient.
2:226 Those that renounce their wives on oath must wait four months. If they change their minds, God is forgiving and merciful;
2:227 but if they decide to divorce them, know that God hears all and knows all.
2:228 Divorced women must wait, keeping themselves from men, three menstrual courses. It is unlawful for them, if they believe in God and the Last Day, to hide what God has created in their wombs: in which case their husbands would do well to take them back, should they desire reconciliation. Women shall with justice have rights similar to those exercised against them, although men have a status above women. God is mighty and wise.
2:229 Divorce may be pronounce twice, and then a woman must be retained in honour or allowed to go with kindness. It is unlawful for husbands to take from them anything they have given them, unless both fear that they may not be able to keep within the bounds set by God; in which case it shall be no offence for either of them if the wife redeems herself. These are the bounds set by God; do not transgress them. Those that transgress the bounds of God are wrongdoers.
2:230 If a man divorces his wife, he cannot remarry her until she has wedded another man and been divorced by him; in which case it shall be no offence for either of them to return to the other, if they think that they can keep within the bounds set by God. Such are the bounds of God. He makes them plain to men of knowledge.
2:231 When you have renounced your wives and they have reached the end of their waiting period, either retain them in honour or let them go with kindness. But you shall not retain them in order to harm them or to wrong them. Whoever does this wrongs his own soul. Do not trifle with God's revelations. Remember the favour God has bestowed upon you, and the Book and the wisdom He has revealed for your instruction. Fear God and know that God has knowledge of all things.
2:232 If a man has renounced his wife and she has reached the end of her waiting period, do not prevent her from remarrying her husband if they have come to an honourable agreement. This is enjoined on every one of you who believes in God and the Last Day; it is more honourable for you and more chaste. God knows, but you know not.
2:233 Mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years if the father wishes the sucking to be completed. They must be maintained and clothed in a reasonable manner by the child's father. None should be charged with more than one can bear. A mother should not be allowed to suffer on account of her child, nor should a father on account of his child. The same duties devolve upon the father's heir. But if, after consultation, they choose by mutual consent to wean the child, they shall incur no guilt. Nor shall it be any offence for you if you prefer to have a nurse for your children, provided that you pay her what you promise, according to usage. Have fear of God and know that God is cognizant of all your actions.
2:234 Widows shall wait, keeping themselves apart from men, for four months and ten days after their husbands' death. When they have reached the end of their waiting period, it shall be no offence for you to let them do whatever they choose for themselves, provided that it is decent. God is cognizant of all your actions.
2:235 It shall be no offence for you openly to propose marriage to such women or to cherish them in your hearts. God knows that you will remember them. Do not arrange to meet them in secret, and if you do, speak to them honourably. But you shall not consummate the marriage before the end of their waiting period. Know that God has knowledge of all your thoughts. Therefore take heed and bear in mind that God is forgiving and lenient.
2:236 It shall be no offence for you to divorce your wives before the marriage is consummated or the dowry settled.
2:237 but bestow on them (A suitable gift), the wealthy according to his means, and the poor according to his means;– A gift of a reasonable amount is due from those who wish to do the right thing. Provide for them with fairness; the rich man according to his means and the poor man according to his. This is binding on righteous men. If you divorce them before the marriage is consummated, but after their dowry has been settled, give them the half of their dowry, unless they or the husband agree to waive it. But it is more proper that the husband should waive it. Do not forget to show kindness to each other. God observes your actions.
2:238 Attend regularly to your prayers, including the middle prayer, and stand up with all devotion before God.
2:239 When you are exposed to danger pray on foot or while riding; and when you are restored to safety remember God, as He has taught you what you did not know.
2:240 You shall bequeath your widows a year's maintenance without causing them to leave their homes; but if they leave of their own accord, no blame shall be attached to you for any course they may deem reasonable to pursue. God is mighty and wise.
2:241 Reasonable provision shall also be made for divorced women. That is incumbent on righteous men.
2:242 Thus God makes known to you His revelations that you may grow in understanding.
2:243 Consider those that fled their homes in their thousands for fear of death. God said to them: 'You shall perish,' and then He brought them back to life. Surely God is bountiful to mankind, but most men don't give thanks.
2:244 Fight for the cause of God and bear in mind that God hears all and knows all.
2:245 Who will grant God a generous loan? Who will repay him many times over. God gives in scant measure and abundantly. To Him shall you be recalled.
2:246 Have you not heard of what the leaders of the Israelites demanded of one of their prophets after the death of Moses? 'Raise up for us a king,' they said, 'and we will fight for the cause of God.' He replied: 'What if you refuse, when ordered so to fight?' 'Why should we refuse to fight for the cause of God,' they said, 'when we have been driven from our dwellings and our children?' But when at last they were ordered to fight, they all refused, except a few of them. God knows the evil–doers.
2:247 Their prophet said to them: 'God has appointed Saul to be your king.' But they replied: 'Should he be given the kingship, when we're more deserving of it than he? Besides, he is not rich at all.' He said: 'God has chosen him to rule over you and made him grow in wisdom and in stature. God gives His sovereignty to whom He will. God is munificent and all–knowing.'
2:248 Their prophet also said to them: 'The advent of the Ark shall be the portent of his reign. Therein shall be tranquillity from your Lord, and the relics which the House of Moses and the House of Aaron left behind. It will be borne by the angels. That will be a sign for you, if you are true believers.'
2:249 And when Saul marched out with his army, he said: 'God will put you to the proof at a certain river. He that drinks from it shall cease to be my soldier, but he that does not drink from it, or contents himself with a taste of it in the hollow of his hand, shall fight by my side.' But they all drank from it, except a few of them. And when Saul had crossed the river with those who shared his faith, they said: 'We have no power this day against Goliath and his warriors.' But those of them who believed that they would meet God replied: (Many a small band has, by God's grace, vanquished a mighty army. God is with those who endure with fortitude.'
2:250 When they met Goliath and his warriors they cried: 'Lord, fill our hearts with steadfastness. Make us firm of foot and help us against the unbelievers.'
2:251 By God's will they routed them. David slew Goliath, and God bestowed on him sovereignty and wisdom and taught him what He pleased. Had God not defeated some by the might of others, the earth would have been utterly corrupted. But God is bountiful to mankind.
2:252 Such are God's revelations. We recite them to you in all truth, for you are one of Our emissaries.
2:253 Of these emissaries We have exalted some above others. To some God spoke directly; others He raised to a lofty status. We gave Jesus son of Mary indisputable signs and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. Had God pleased, those who succeeded them would not have fought against one another after the veritable signs had been given them. But they disagreed among themselves; some had faith and others had none. Yet had God pleased they would not have fought against one another. God does what He will.
2:254 Believers, bestow in alms a part of what We have given you before that day arrives when commerce and friendship and intercession shall be no more. Truly, it is the unbelievers who are unjust.
2:255 God: there is no god but Him, the Living, the Eternal One. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. His is what the heavens and the earth contain. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before and behind men. They can grasp only that part of His knowledge which He wills. His throne is as vast as the heavens and the earth, and the preservation of both does not weary Him. He is the Exalted, the Immense One.
2:256 There shall be no compulsion in religion. True guidance is now distinct from error. He that renounces idol–worship and puts his faith in God shall grasp a firm handle that will never break. God hears all and knows all.
2:257 God is the Patron of the faithful. He leads them from darkness to the light. As for the unbelievers, their patrons are false gods, who lead them from light to darkness. They are the heirs of the Fire and shall abide in it for ever.
2:258 Have you not heard of him who argued with Abraham about his Lord because God had bestowed sovereignty upon him? Abraham said: 'My Lord is He who has the power of life and death.' 'I, too,' replied the other, 'have the power of life and death.' 'God brings up the sun from the east,' said Abraham. 'Bring it up yourself from the west.' The unbeliever was confounded. God does not guide the evil–doers.
2:259 Or of him, who, when passing by a ruined and desolate city, remarked: 'How can God give life to this city, now that it is dead?' Thereupon God caused him to die, and after a hundred years brought him back to life. 'How long have you lingered?' asked God. 'A day,' he replied, 'or part of a day.' 'Know, then,' said God, 'that you have stayed away a hundred years. Yet look at your food and drink: they have not rotted. And look at your ass. We will make you a sign for mankind: see how We will raise the bones and clothe them with flesh.' And when it had all become manifest to him, he said: 'Now I know that God has power over all things.'
2:260 When Abraham said: 'Show me, Lord, how You will raise the dead,' He replied: 'Have you no faith?' 'Yes,' said Abraham, 'but just to reassure my heart.' 'Take four birds,' said He, 'draw them to you, and cut their bodies to pieces. Scatter them over the mountain–tops, then call them back. They will come swiftly to you. Know that God is mighty and wise.'
2:261 Those that give their wealth for the cause of God can be compared to a grain of corn which brings forth seven ears, each bearing a hundred grains. God gives abundance to whom He will; God is munificent and all–knowing.
2:262 Those that give their wealth for the cause of God and do not follow their almsgiving with taunts and insults shall be rewarded by their Lord; they shall have nothing to fear or to regret.
2:263 A kind word with forgiveness is better than charity followed by insult. God is self–sufficient and gracious.
2:264 Believers, do not mar your almsgiving with taunts and mischief–making, like those who spend their wealth for the sake of ostentation and believe neither in God nor in the Last Day. Such men are like a rock covered with earth: a shower falls upon it and leaves it hard and bare. They shall gain nothing from their works. God does not guide the unbelievers.
2:265 But those that give away their wealth from a desire to please God and to reassure their own souls are like an orchard on a hill–side: if a shower falls upon it, it yields up twice its normal produce; and if no rain falls, it is watered by the dew. God takes cognizance of all your actions.
2:266 Would any one of you, being a man well–advanced in age with helpless children to support, wish to have his orchard –– an orchard planted with palm–trees, vines and all manner of fruits, and watered by running streams –– blasted and consumed by a fiery whirlwind? Thus God makes plain to you His revelations, so that you may give thought.
2:267 Believers, give in alms from the wealth you have lawfully earned and from that which We have brought out of the earth for you; not worthless things which you yourselves would but reluctantly accept. Know that God is self–sufficient and glorious.
2:268 Satan threatens you with poverty and enjoins lewdness on you. But God promises you His forgiveness and His bounty. God is munificent and all–knowing.
2:269 He gives wisdom to whom He will; and he that receives the gift of wisdom is rich indeed. Yet none but men of sense bear this in mind.
2:270 Whatever alms you give and whatever vows you make are known to God; The evil–doers shall have none to help them.
2:271 To be charitable in public is good, but to give alms to the poor in private is better and will atone for some of your sins. God has knowledge of all your actions.
2:272 It is not for you to guide them. God gives guidance to whom He will. Whatever alms you give shall rebound to your own advantage, provided that you give them for the love of God. And whatever alms you give shall be repaid to you in full: you shall not be wronged.
2:273 As for those needy men who, being wholly preoccupied with fighting for the cause of God, cannot travel the land in quest of trading ventures: the ignorant take them for men of wealth on account of their modest behaviour. But you can recognize them by their look –– they never importune men for alms. Whatever alms you give are known to God.
2:274 Those that give alms by day and by night, in private and in public, shall be rewarded by their Lord. They shall have nothing to fear or to regret.
2:275 Those that live on usury shall rise up before God like men whom Satan has demented by his touch; for they claim that trading is no different from usury. But God has permitted trading and made usury unlawful. He that has received an admonition from his Lord and mended his ways may keep his previous gains; God will be his judge. Those that turn back shall be the inmates of the Fire, wherein they shall abide for ever.
2:276 God has laid His curse on usury and blessed almsgiving with increase. God bears no love for the impious and the sinful.
2:277 Those that have faith and do good works, attend to their prayers and render the alms levy, will be rewarded by their Lord and will have nothing to fear nor to regret.
2:278 Believers, have fear of God and waive what is still due to you from usury, if your faith be true;
2:279 or war shall be declared against you by God and His Apostle. If you repent, you may retain your principal, suffering no loss and causing loss to none.
2:280 If your debtor be in straits, grant him a delay until he can discharge his debt; but if you waive the sum as alms it will be better for you, if you but knew it.
2:281 Fear the day when you shall all return to God; when every soul shall be paid back for what it did. None shall be wronged.
2:282 Believers, when you contract a debt for a fixed period, put it in writing. Let a scribe write it down for you with fairness; no scribe should refuse to write as God has taught him. Therefore let him write; and let the debtor dictate, fearing God his Lord and not diminishing the sum he owes. If the debtor be an ignorant or feeble–minded person, or one who cannot dictate, let his guardian dictate for him in fairness. Call in two male witnesses from among you, but if two men cannot be found, then one man and two women whom you judge fit to act as witnesses; so that if either of them make an error, the other will remind her. Witnesses must not refuse if called upon to give evidence. So do not fail to put your debts in writing, be they small or large, together with the date of payment. This is more just in the sight of God; it ensures accuracy in testifying and is the best way to remove all doubt. But if the transaction be a bargain concluded on the spot, it is no offence for you if you do not put it into writing. See that witnesses are present when you barter with one another, and let no harm be done to either scribe or witness. If you harm them you will commit a transgression. Have fear of God; God teaches you, and God has knowledge of all things.
2:283 If you are travelling the road and a scribe cannot be found, then let pledges be given. If any one of you entrusts another with a pledge, let the trustee restore the pledge to its owner; and let him fear God, his Lord. You shall not withhold testimony; sinful is the heart of him who withholds it. God has knowledge of all your actions.
2:284 To God belongs all that the heavens and the earth contain. Whether you reveal your thoughts or hide them, God will bring you to account for them. He will forgive whom He will and punish whom He pleases; God has power over all things.
2:285 The Apostle believes in what has been revealed to him by his Lord, and so do the faithful. They all believe in God and His angels, His scriptures, and His Apostles: We discriminate against none of His Apostles. They say: 'We hear and obey. Grant us Your forgiveness, Lord; to You shall all return.
2:286 God does not charge a soul with more than it can bear. It shall be requited for whatever good and whatever evil it has done. Lord, do not be angry with us if we forget or lapse into error. Lord, do not lay on us a burden such as You laid on those before us. Lord, do not charge us with more than we can bear. Pardon us, forgive us our sins, and have mercy upon us. You alone are our Protector. Give us victory over the unbelievers.'


   


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